Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning due to a misconception or presumption, which makes the argument completely invalid. For example, if the assumptions of an argument are true, the argument can still be rendered invalid if the logic that is used to achieve the conclusion is not valid – in other words, fallacious. A collection of bad arguments are known as logical fallacies.
Our brains usually tend to take shortcuts, known as heuristics, when trying to solve problems. They are sometimes handy and can be true some of the time, but they can also lead to cognitive errors when they’re substituted for formal logic.
People can easily unintentionally fall prey to logical fallacies, but they can also use them purposefully to seemingly win an argument against another person who doesn’t understand them. Below you’ll find 24 logical fallacies that you should understand and avoid using.